© Promwad Innovation Company Application Notes | December 09, 2013
Use of NetBSD with Marvell Kirkwood Processors
This article provides an overview of NetBSD and highlights its differences from other operating systems of the family. It also briefly discusses the implementation and configuration of device drivers. The author studies an example of using this operating system, as an alternative to Linux, on the IP-Plug.
NetBSD is an operating system which represents the BSD family, along with OpenBSD and FreeBSD. Originally, BSD (an acronym of Berkeley Software Distribution) was a combination of patches and utilities for Bell Labs Unix, which evolved into an independent system. The source code had two licenses - Bell (because the company owned the larger part of the original source code) and BSD proper. After a while, the team of BSD developers broke up and the BSD project later received a new incarnation as 386BSD, an architecture i386 port. Eventually, the BSD family broke into three branches: NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD. Each of the three systems is unique in its own way, but they all have a lot in common. The key feature of NetBSD is multi-platform support. The developers’ slogan was: “Of course, you can run NetBSD on this platform”. Developers have applied for registering 53 architectures, and the number of supported machines continues to grow. Meanwhile, NetBSD remains just as safe and high-performing as its “family members”, OpenBSD and FreeBSD. NetBSD was first officially released in April 1993 and had the version number 0.8. Today’s latest version is 6.0. We should especially mention the advantages of a BSD license. Unlike Linux GPL, a BSD license helps in every possibly way modify the source code, change file names and distribute the final product provided we mention the author’s name. NetBSD source codes are accessible through an FTP server as tar archives or iso images. You can also receive any version of the system out of the cvs repository by referring to the release name tag. The source code tree includes a kernel code (sys directory), utilities (bin, usr.bin, sbin, usr, usr.sbin, gnu), a cross-compiler (tools), the build script build.sh, as well as relevant libraries and documentation. System compilation involves the following stages:
The IP-Plug uses the Marvell 88F6282 processor, ARMv5TE Kirkwood architecture series. Its support has been added to the NetBSD distribution since July 2012 and represented by files in the directory sys/arch/evbarm/marvell:
- To build a tool chain for the target architecture, you should call the script build.sh with the parameter tools. The tools include as, binutils, gcc, m4, yacc, etc. You can see all supported architectures in the sys/arch directory.
- Building the kernel is based on the specified configuration.
- To build system utilities and create a root file system, you should call the script build.sh with the parameter distribution.
|Microprocessor||1 GHz Marvell Kirkwood 88F6283, ARM Compliant|
|Memory||Up to 1024 MB 16 bit DDR2@800 MHz / Up to 4 GB NAND Flash|
|Ethernet||2x Gigabit Ethernet|
|Wi-Fi/BT||Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n + BT 2.1 EDR (optional)|
|Power||Input voltage: 100–240 V, 50/60 Hz; / Power consumption: 15 Watt, 5V@3.0A max|
|Dimensions||118 мм (L) x 76 mm (W) x 43 mm (H)|
|Package size||145 mm (L) х 125 mm (W) х 55 mm (H)|
- marvell_start.S is low-level kernel initialization: MMU initialization, transfer of boot parameters to the high-level code;
- marvell_machdep.c contains the main initialization code of the ARM kernel, peripherals (including boot console), building a page table and kernel relocation;
- marvellreg.h and marvellvar.h are constant values for addresses and sizes of memory locations, into which the registers of peripherals needed for system boot are mapped.
Pocket-Size white noise generator for quickly testing circuit signal response Question: Can you produce a frequency spectrum for all frequencies at the same time?
II-VI expands its silicon carbide manufacturing footprint II-VI Incorporated says it has expanded its silicon carbide (SiC) wafer finishing manufacturing footprint in China to serve the largest worldwide market for electric vehicles (EVs) and for clean energy applications.
Sponsored content by Würth Elektronik eiSosFour days of concentrated electronics knowledge Würth Elektronik invites you to a virtual conference with expert presentations on EMC, thermal management, power management, connectivity, and many other circuit design topics from April 26-29, 2021 from 8 am to 6 pm CET each day.
AQ Group acquires Schaffner’s Power Magnetic Division Swedish AQ Group AB has signed an agreement with the Swiss company Schaffner Group to acquire its Power Magnetics Division.
Chinese companies hold only 5% of global IC market Propelled by 50% share of IDM sales and 64% share of fabless sales, U.S. companies captured 55% of the total worldwide IC market in 2020.
Farnell adds 20'000 new products - targets the home office Farnell, an Avnet Company and global distributor of electronic components, products and solutions, has added 20'000 new electronic and electrical products to its portfolio.
Asahi Kasei Europe unites activities at Düsseldorf Harbour Late last year, Asahi Kasei Europe started office operation at its new location at Düsseldorf Harbour, Germany. In March 2021, the Asahi Kasei Europe R&D Center relocated from Dormagen to the new location.
Sponsored content by KyzenThe Effectiveness of IPA/DI on No-clean Flux Residues This article studies the ability of the current 75%IPA/25%DI extraction solution, commonly used to detect ion contamination since the 1960s, to detect and quantify new technology weak organic acids common in modern soldering materials employing ROSE, Gravimetric, and Ion Chromatography.
Intel steps up as a supplier to the automotive industry According to Intel’s new CEO, Pat Gelsinger, the company is ready to step up and start making chips for car makers to take the edge off the current shortage that has hit the automotive industry hard.
Fund II triples the size of TDK Ventures’ Fund I TDK Corporation's subsidiary TDK Ventures Inc. has closed its second fund, totalling USD 150 million in new capital. The new fund will primarily target early-stage, global investments in clean technology, advanced materials, industrial, robotics, energy, autonomous vehicles, electric vehicles, and healthtech segments.
MacDermid Alpha opens new die attach applications centre MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions officially opened a Greater China Die Attach Application Centre on April 1st, 2021. The technology and application centre will house technical service and lab personnel, equipped with die attach assembly and process equipment.
Sponsored content by Shenzen Kinwong ElectronicThe development trend of printed circuit board products and Kinwong's solution With the rapid development of electronic technology in recent years, printed circuit board (PCB) products are pursuing higher heat dissipation capabilities, with high voltage and high current characteristics, and are developing towards high-density interconnection technology (HDI).
WISeKey to increase manufacturing capabilities to support demand Cybersecurity and IoT company, WISeKey, says that it is significantly investing in its supply chain transformation to better and faster serve its customers. The company is simultaneously impacted by the current semiconductor shortage situation and a tremendously growing order backlog.
Renesas resumes operations at fire damaged facility Renesas say that the N3 Building (300mm line) clean room at Naka Factory resumed operations on Friday April 9.
Neonode to supply its tech to a major South Korean elevator OEM Neonode has received an order for and will supply touch sensor modules to Finetek, a Neonode value-added reseller, who has been selected by a major elevator OEM in South Korea to install its contactless elevator control panel solutions powered by Neonode’s technology in existing elevators in this market.
High Speed ADC Power Supply Domains Question: Why are there all these power domains for high speed ADCs?
Sponsored content by TotechLong Term Storage Safe, secure storage and quality testing of sensitive components Shortage of electronic components Worldwide there is a significant shortage of electronic components, especially SMT components. The Long Term Storage of electronic components can be the solution for this problem in the future. But the requirements for long-term storage are increasing.
BAE Systems receives adaptive RF contracts from DARPA BAE Systems will design mechanisms for the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that protect emerging wideband receivers from interference, enabling their use in contested and congested environments.
Swedish biometrics company expands in Europe and Asia Swedish biometrics company, Fingerprint Cards, is seeing more and more reasons to move closer to "the action". The world’s top three payment card producers are all based in continental Europe, while most of the largest smartphone OEMs are headquartered in Asia - so that's where the company's heading.
Siemens Mobility to triple R&D headcount in Hungary Siemens Mobility is set to create 120 new R&D related jobs at its Budapest, Hungary location as the company moves moves forward in its efforts to "digitalise track-based transport modes".
AMD and Xilinx stockholders approve proposed acquisition The stockholders of both companies voted to approve their respective proposals relating to the pending acquisition of Xilinx by AMD.
Renesas to shift production from fire-hit Naka fab The Japanese semiconductor manufacturer is reportedly set to shift some production from its fire damaged Naka fab to a facility in the southwestern prefecture of Ehime.
Netlist and SK hynix reach patent and technology agreement Netlist and SK hynix have reached an agreement for a patent cross license covering memory technologies of both companies and an agreement for the supply of SK hynix products and technical cooperation on Netlist's CXL HybriDIMM technology.
13% increase to lift total semi shipments to a new record high Total semiconductor unit shipments, which include integrated circuits as well as optoelectronics, sensor/actuator, and discrete (O-S-D) devices, are forecast to rise 13% in 2021, to 1,135.3 billion (1.1353 trillion) units to set a new all-time annual record.
ROHM Semiconductor Europe appoints new President As of April 1st, 2021, Wolfram Harnack has taken the helm as ROHM Semiconductor Europe's new President. Former President, Toshimitsu Suzuki, will lead the European Sales Division as General Manager from the company's headquarters in Japan.
SK hynix negotiates supply deal with Bosch The South Korean company is reportedly in talks with Germany’s Robert Bosch Gmbh regarding a long-term supply contract.
Camtek receives orders worth more than $20 million The developer and manufacturer of inspection and metrology equipment for the semiconductor industry, says that in recent weeks it has received orders for inspection and metrology systems totaling over USD 20 million.
u‑blox acquires full ownership in Sapcorda JV Wireless and positioning technology specialist, u-blox, says that it has acquired full ownership of Sapcorda Services GmbH, a joint venture formed by u‑blox, Bosch, Geo++, and Mitsubishi Electric.
Murata spins off plant – establishes new company Murata Manufacturing says it will spin off its Kanazawa Murata Manufacturing Sendai plant and establish a new group company with the name of Sendai Murata Manufacturing, on July 1, 2021.Load more news